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In addition, a disproportionate burden is placed upon women in employment when they are expected to be solely responsible for child care ; they may be more likely to be fired or be denied advancement in their profession, thus putting them at an economic disadvantage relative to men. Biologically "male" privilege is only one of the many power structures that may exist within a given society. As discussed by Paula Rothernberg in her novel Invisible Privilege: A Memoir About Race, Class, and Gender , male privilege often takes institutionalized and embedded forms from which men may directly benefit.
An example of male privilege in institutionalized academic settings can be observed by the prevalence of men in how curriculums are formed and history and literature is taught across the United States. American government on the national level, including the United States Senate and the United States Congress , is also predominantly male. The earliest academic studies of privilege appeared with feminist scholars' work in the area of women's studies during the s. Such scholarship began by examining barriers to equity between the sexes.
Peggy McIntosh , one of the first feminist scholars to examine male privilege, wrote about both male privilege and white privilege , using the metaphor of the "invisible knapsack" to describe a set of advantages borne, often unaware and unacknowledged, by members of privileged groups. The benefits of this unspoken privilege may be described as special provisions, tools, relationships, or various other opportunities. According to McIntosh, this privilege may actually negatively affect men's development as human beings, and few question that the existing structure of advantages may be challenged or changed.
Efforts to examine the role of privilege in students' lives has become a regular feature of university education in North America. Some linguistic conventions have privileged men and the male perspective and suggested that maleness is the societal norm. Historically, the third-person singular pronoun " he " is used as a sex-indefinite, generic form for all people e. Many men may respond to discussions of male privilege by saying that they do not feel that they have been given any unearned advantages, such as in their struggles to find success in employment, education, or relationships.
On the other hand, some self-identified feminist men take active roles in challenging oppressive sexism , arguing that male privilege is deeply linked to the oppression of women. They describe men's oppressive behaviors as cultural traits learned within patriarchal social systems, rather than inborn biological traits.
In many societies including India and China , male offspring are privileged and favored over female children. Reasons given for preferring sons to daughters include sons' role in religious family rites, which daughters are not permitted to perform, and the belief that sons are permanent members of the birth family whereas daughters belong to their husband's family after marriage in accordance with patrilocal tradition.
Other reasons include patrilineal customs whereby only sons can carry on the family name, the obligation to pay dowry to a daughter's husband or his family, and the expectation that sons will support their birth parents financially while it is regarded as undesirable or shameful to receive financial support from daughters. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the English-speaking world and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. Women's suffrage Muslim countries US. First Second Third Fourth. Lists Articles Feminists by nationality Literature American feminist literature Feminist comic books. Gender neutrality in English , Gender-neutrality in languages with grammatical gender , and Gender-neutrality in languages without grammatical gender.
Encyclopedia of Gender and Society: Masculinities in Contemporary American Culture: The Concise Encyclopedia of Sociology. Wellesley College, Center for Research on Women. Marginalized Masculinities and the Intersectionality of Privilege".
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